on Effective Use of Computer As A Tool in Mathematics Classroom - Guidelines
for Teachers to Design Lesson -
Tokyo University of Science
In Japan, with the progress of diffusion of personal computers to elementary
and secondary schools, and with the spread of the personal computers to
each home, computer skills of teachers and of students have improved in
recent years. And the use of computers in classroom became ordinary situation.
In these situation, students' attitude toward computers have drastically
In this study, computers in mathematics classroom is viewed as ordinary
a "Tool" or artifact, and examine conditions for effective use of software.
"Tool" means a cognitive artifact that mediates cognition between human
and mathematical world. Our study based on the theory of D.A.Norman. In
his cognitive theory of learning and tool, he distinguished recognition
into experimental cognition and reflective cognition. This distinction
provides us an framework to design effective use of software in classroom.
Also, he categorized three types of learning: accretion, tuning and restructuring.
These types of learning provides clear view to design student's learning
with "Tool". In addition, it is important to consider the technology to
be as a "Tool" from both the viewpoints of each subject and of the informational
In our case, we examined the uses of Cabri Geometry II Plus and Cabri
3D which in high school mathematics classes. We analyzed mathematics classes
and matters according to two types of cognition and three types of learning
which are mentioned above. We noticed several factors for effective use
of computer as a "Tool" and propose some guidelines to design effective
use of computer in mathematics class.